Embedded Wiki and Know-how

This site introduces the following embedded software-related technologies. This wiki and know-how is based on the author’s experience and does not conform to any standards or MCU manuals. Please read it only as a reference.


MCU Architecture

This post describes the architecture of the MCU (abbreviation for Micro Controller Unit).


This post describes the CPU.


This post describes the Pre-Fetch.

BUS and Memory-map

This post describes the BUS and Memory-map.


This post describes the Cache.


This post describes the timers of MCU.

Operation of interrupt functions

This post describes the operation of interrupt functions.

Successive Comparative ADC

This post describes successive comparison type ADCs.


This post describes DMA (Direct Memory Access).


This post describes Endianness.


Initialization procedure of Function Port

This posting describes the procedure for initializing the functional ports. EXP: SPI

Information sharing between processes

This post describes information sharing between different processes.

RTOS Thread and Interrupt

This post describes RTOS threads (tasks) and interrupt behavior.

Hard-RTOS Multitask and Interrupt

This post describes MultiTask (Thread) and interrupt behavior of a Hard-RTOS. This post is a supplement to my previous post on RTOS Threads(Task) and interrupts. Please note that the behavior may differ depending on the RTOS.

Why is inter-task and interrupt-to-task communication necessary in multitasking ?

This post describes why inter-task and interrupt-to-task communication is necessary in multitasking.

Differences between macro and library

This post describes the difference between macro functions and library functions.

Dual sensor in functional safety system

This post describes a dual sensor with functional safety in mind.

Points easily overlooked in the control model

This post will discuss points that are often overlooked in control models.

Rare error of shared resources in processes with different priorities

This post describes rare errors of shared resources in processing with different priorities.

Variable Types and Usage Example

This post describes the types of variables and how to use them.

Floating point and Fixed point

This post describes Floating point and Fixed point.

Pitfalls of I2C communication

This post describes a bug I experienced in I2C communication that I fell into.

Points to note for external EEPROM

This post describes the points to note for external EEPROM.

Causes and Measures for spaghettifying codes and models

This post discusses the causes and measures for spaghettifying codes and models.

Software Specifications and Software Design Documents

This post describes the Software Specifications and Software Design Documents.

How to create a document for each process

This post describes how to have documentation created for each process.

Functional Safety Specifications

This post describes the functional safety specifications. Many people have already posted about the ISO 26262 functional safety standard, so I will skip it in this post.

Codes that take into consideration temporary anomalies

This post describes a code that take into consideration temporary anomalies.

Infinite loop due to MCU function register failure

This post describes an infinite loop due to MCU function register failure.

Reliability of Embedded Software

This post describes the reliability of embedded software.

How to understand hardware characteristics for software engineers

This post describes how to understand hardware characteristics for software engineers.

How to understand communication specifications

This post describes how to understand communication specifications.

Points for making market failure

This post describes the points for making market failures in embedded products.

Embedded software design

State transition design

This post describes state transition design.

Sample Program

Simplified state transition program

This post introduces compact state transition programs.

Embedded Development Environment


This post describes the embeded C/C++ compile.

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